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Cels., V. 61) distinguishes between two branches of Ebionites, - those who denied and those who accepted the miraculous birth. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. Among these belong the Elkesaites" (Schaff, Ch. Though it consisted mostly of Jews, Gentile Christians also sometimes attached themselves to it. Ebionite, member of an early ascetic sect of Jewish Christians. They form the stepping-stone to Gnosticism. By this name were designated one or more early Christian sects infected with Judaistic errors. 4. Their doctrine may be reduced to the following propositions: (a.) 2). On the other side, see N. Amer. Among these belong the Elkesaites" (Schaff, Ch. Neither are named in Mark or Matthew chapters 1-2, while both are named eight times each in Luke chapters 1-2, and Zacharias is named in Lk 3:2 (above). 8-10. 2. It first occurs in Irenaeus, Adv. The sect considered him a native heathen, who came over to Judaism in later life from impure motives. Hence Origen compared this sect to the blind man in the Gospel who called to the Lord without seeing him, 'Thou son of David, have mercy on me!'. The common Ebionites, who were by far the more numerous, embodied the Pharisaic legal spirit, and were the proper successors of the Judaizers opposed in the epistle to the Galatians. (See Fisher, 1. c., for a criticism of this view, and for a brief but luminous sketch of Ebionism. It is true that Jesus was "christ," but so also would all be who fulfilled the Law. — See, besides the works already cited, Irenaeus, Har. The most complete account available of the Ebionites comes from Epiphanius of Salamis who in the fourth century recorded a "heresiology", Panarion, which was aimed to denounce 80 so-called heretical sects, including the Ebionites. 1. Doctrines. A link to all Patristic mention of the Ebionites is at this link-- the original Latin texts.. Ebionites On Authority of Apostles. History. This term was anciently applied in derision to Christians in general (Epiphanius, adv. Disappointed in his hopes of advancement, Paul broke with the High Priest and sought fame by founding a new religion. Celsum, 2:1). Rev. EBIONITES. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Origin The name Ebionite seems to be derived from Heb ˒eḇyôn, òpoor. The derivation first above given is now generally adopted. : 1:116; 2:376; 3:175 et al. April, 1864, page 569 sq.). ), and in the other forms of what is called Unitarianism (q.v.). Epiphanius traces the origin of Ebionitism to the Christians who fled to Pella after the destruction of Jerusalem, A.D. 66 (adv. 1870. The term Ebionites derives from the Hebrew אביונים Evionim, meaning "the Poor Ones", which has parallels in the Psalms and the self-given term of pious Jewish circles. Ebionites and Essenes. 3. traces the Ebionitish tendency as far back as the Epistle to the Hebrews. Most of the features of Ebionite doctrine were anticipated in the teachings of the earlier Qumrān sect, as revealed in the Dead Sea Scrolls. ; Martensen, Dogmatics (Edinburgh, 1866), § 128; Shedd, History of Doctrines, 1:106 sq. Those Jews who broke away to follow Jesus called themselves Nazarenes and later, Ebionites. The Ebionites, however, still refused to accept this conclusion; though no doubt some of them, weary of waiting for Jesus' return, went back to the fold of normative Judaism and gave up their belief in Jesus as Messiah and prophet. 11; Burton, Bampton Lectures (Oxford, 1829), notes 73-84. It used a Hebrew Gospel, now lost, which was probably a corruption of the Gospel of Matthew" (Schaff, Church History, 1, § 68, page 214). Ebionite, member of an early ascetic sect of Jewish Christians. It continued into the fourth century, but at the time of Theodoret was entirely extinct. 2. Exposure Of. The word Ebionites, or rather, more correctly, Ebionæans (Ebionaioi), is a transliteration of an Aramean word meaning “poor men”. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. 1, § 68, 214 sq. EBIONITES is the name given to a Jewish Christian sect that flourished during the early history of the Christian church. 1, § 68, 214 sq.). But the consequence of the legal stand-point soon showed itself. Its members evidently left Palestine to avoid persecution and settled in Transjordan (notably at Pella) and Syria and were later known to be in Asia Minor and Egypt. Ecclesiastes in, 27) fancifully derives the name from "the poverty and meanness of the Elbionite doctrine concerning Christ." We wish we… Ebionites. LITERATURE. Copyright StatementThese files are public domain. There occurred at the end, or before the end, of the apostolic age, a reaction of the Jewish Christianity, which with Baur is identical with the Judaizing or Ebionite element; and this type of Christianity prevailed through the larger part of the second century." https://www.britannica.com/topic/Ebionites. Ebionites (Greek: Ἐβιωναῖοι, Ebionaioi, derived from Hebrew אביונים ‎ ebyonim, ebionim, meaning 'the poor' or 'poor ones') as a term refers to a Jewish Christian sect who were vegetarians, viewed poverty as holy, believed in ritual ablutions, and also rejected of animal sacrifices. (b.) c. 33) derives it from a founder, Edion, who maintained the authority of the Jewish law, and rejected the miraculous conception and divine nature of spirit. The sense of his Messianic calling first arose in him at his baptism by John, when a higher spirit joined itself to him. They form the stepping-stone to Gnosticism. Bishop Horsley replied to Priestley in his Charge to the Clergy of St. Albans (1783), and in other tracts, collected in Tracts in Controversy with Dr. Priestley (Dundee, 1812, 3d ed.). (c.) Paul is an apostate and heretic, and all his epistles are to be discarded. t first appears in the writings of Irenaeus (Adv. We wish we had the whole Gospel. Haer. Strong, James. There are other interesting features of the Gospel of the Ebionites, known from the quotations of Epiphanius, the fourth-century heresiologist (= heresy-hunter). its abiding significancy, which it has as a divine institute without imperiling the newness and conclusive completeness of Christianity." The discussion is not meaningful. The exact relationship of the Ebionites to the Dead Sea Community and/or the Essenes as well as the older sect known as the Rechabites is still a matter of conjecture, although more recent scholarship has tended to see basic similarities if not some type of direct relationship. Some Unitarian writers have undertaken to show that Ebionism was the original form of Christian doctrine, and that the Church doctrine as to the person of Christ was a later development; so Priestley, in his History of the Corruptions of Christianity (Birmingham, 1782). ; Herzog, Real- Esacyklopadie, 3:621 sq. It first occurs in Irenaeus, Adv. See also Waterland, Works, Oxf. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. a sect of Judaizing Christians who received the doctrines of the Gospel very partially, and denied the divine nature of Christ. They are difficult to combat because they do not respect the written Word. Following schisms within the early Church, the graecized Hebrew term "Ebionite" was applied exclusively to Jewish Christians separated from the developing Pauline Christianity, and later in the fourth century … How to say Ebionites in English? Kircheng., 4:279 sq. Haer., I., xxvi, 2… What eventually became of the Ebionites remains a point of contention amongst historians. The word Ebionites, or rather, more correctly, Ebionaeans, Ebionaioi, is a transliteration of the Aramean ABYONYA, meaning “poor men”. Harper & Brothers. The name of the sect is from the Hebrew ebyonim, or ebionim (“the poor”); it was not founded, as later Christian writers stated, by a certain Ebion. The Gospel of the Ebionites and the Hebrew Gospel. The Ebionites believed Jesus became the Messiah because he obeyed the Jewish Law. ; Burton, Ecclesiastes History, Lect. They themselves faithfully followed the Law, although they removed what they regarded as interpolations in order to uphold their teachings, which included vegetarianism, holy poverty, ritual ablutions, and the rejection of animal sacrifices. New York. The origin of the term, a Hebrew word meaning poor persons, is obscure.It may have been an honorific title given to an original group of Christians who were Jews living in Jerusalem that needed assistance from Christians elsewhere in the Roman Empire (Rom. October 1864, art. We know that the Ebionites believed Yeshu was born of a natural generation between Joseph and Mary; while some Nazarenes believed in a virgin birth. Ebionites of today that I have encountered chop the New testament off at Act 2. The term "the poor" was at first a common designation for all Christians - a reference to their material as well their voluntary poverty. But, unlike them, he holds that we find within the canon a great departure from, and advance upon, this humanitarian doctrine of Christ's person. Against Heresies — Irenæus. Ebionites From International Standard Bible Encyclopedia EBIONITES - A Jewish-Christian heretical sect flourishing in the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cents A.D. They existed during the early centuries of the Common Era. They rejected the Virgin Birth of Jesus, instead holding that he was the natural son of Joseph and Mary. It is the same as debating Scripture with an Atheist. The sect seems to have existed into the 4th century. The Ebionites and Nazarenes were Jewish–Christian sects during the Second Temple era. General Statement: The Ebionites were a sect of heretics frequently mentioned by the early Fathers. Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. The Name. But, as there were different sects in Judaism itself, we have also to distinguish at least two branches of Ebionism, related to each other, as Pharisaism and Essenism, or, to use a modern illustration, as the older deistic and the speculative pantheistic rationalism in Germany, or the two schools of Unitarianism in England and America. "We find the sect of the Ebionites in Palestine and the surrounding regions, on the island of Cyprus, in Asia Minor, and even in Rome. It first occurs in Irenaeus, Adv. The Community who followed James were known as 'the Poor', (Galatians 2:10, James 2:3-5) a designation mentioned both in the Sermon on the Mount and in the Dead Sea Scrolls. I. xxvi. Jesus is, indeed, the promised Messiah, the son of David, and the supreme lawgiver, yet a mere man, like Moses and David, sprung by natural generation from Joseph and Mary. — Dorner (Person of Christ, Edinb. • Two varieties: the earlier group called Ebionites denied the divinity of Christ; the later Ebionites were a Gnostic sect who believed that matter was eternal and was God s body Catholic Encyclopedia. 1:26 (Ante-Nicene Library, verse 97); Gieseler, Ueber die Nazarder und Ebioniten, in Archiv fur A.&N. Ebionite writings: Clementine Homilies; Clementine Recognitions; Clementine Epitomes; Asc Isa; Odes of Solomon. Generally, the movement came to have a very negative view of Paul as an “apostate from the Torah,” though it is possible that in the 2nd and 3rd centuries there were branches of the Nazarenes who were more tolerant of Paul as the “apostle to the Gentiles,” but who as Jews, nonetheless, insisted on Torah observance. The former is a particularistic contraction of the Christian religion; the latter a vague expansion of it" (Church History, § 67). A far abler advocate of the Socinian view is Baur, in his Christenthum d. drei erstess Jahrhunderte; Lehre v.d. Ecclesiastes 4:22), one Thebutis, at Jerusalem, about the beginning of the second century, "began to corrupt the Church secretly on account of his not being made a bishop." According to TERTULLIAN (De Praescr. 2. Organization of Ebionites. 29:1), and came later to designate Jewish Christians (Origen, cont. The following selection is excerpted from Montague Rhode James in The Apocryphal New Testament (Oxford: Clarendon Press 1924), pp. Rev. Apocrypha: Gospel of the Ebionites The Gospel of the Ebionites is known only by the quotations from Epiphanius in these passages of his Panarion: 30.13.1-8, 30.14.5, 30.16.4-5, and 30.22.4. Presb. 1). The Gospel of the Ebionites is the conventional name given by scholars to an apocryphal gospel extant only as seven brief quotations in a heresiology known as the Panarion, by Epiphanius of Salamis; he misidentified it as the "Hebrew" gospel, believing it to be a truncated and modified version of the Gospel of Matthew. The second class of Ebionites, starting with Essenic notions, gave their Judaism a speculative or theosophic stamp, like the errorists of the Epistle to the Colossians. 1:344; 350; Schliemann, Die Clementinen (Hamb. We have only these eight fragments that Epiphanius quotes. We wish we knew who actually used the Gospel. Baur's position is clearly stated, and refuted by professor Fisher (Am. Evidently, they later found this unsatisfactory and developed their own literature—the Gospel of the Ebionites—although none of this text has survived. Tertullian (De Praescrip. 1844), page 362 sq. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Little information exists on the Ebionites, and the surviving accounts are subject to considerable debate, since they are uniformly derived from the Ebionites’ opponents. 2. … Hist. Irenaeus on the Ebionites Adversus Haereses (Book I, Chapter 26) Those who are called Ebionites agree that the world was made by God; but their opinions with respect to the Lord are similar to those of Cerinthus and Carpocrates. Contemporary writers on Ebionites: Irenaeus; Tertullian; Hippolytus; Origen; Eusebius, III, 27; Epiphanius; Jerome; Justin Martyr (Trypho, 47, 48) refers to the Ebionites without naming them. From the Catholic Encyclopedia. The Jewish Christians called themselves “Ebionites.” “Ebionite” is a word derived from Hebrew meaning “the poor.” They traced their vow of poverty back to the first Christian community described in the New Testament Acts of the Apostles (4:32-35), and were a spiritual community that shared all of their possessions in common. To report dead links, typos, or html errors or suggestions about making these resources more useful use the convenient, History of the Corruptions of Christianity, Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. The Ebionites also held Jerusalem in great veneration. First (Lexicon, s.v.) 1843, 6 vols. makes the derivation refer to Matthew 5:3 making "Ebionites" equivalent to "oppressed pious exiles" (Isaiah 25:4). They do not appear to have been at any time numerous, and it is doubtful whether they ever obtained such consistency as to have a definite creed. The Ebionites developed from this branch. The first mention of the sect is in the works of the Christian theologian St. Irenaeus, notably in his Adversus haereses (Against Heresies; c. 180); other sources include the writings of Origen and St. Epiphanius of Constantia. V. EVIDENCE FROM EBIONISM FOR THE DOCTRINE OF THE PRIMITIVE CHURCH. Kevin Knight. Eusebius (Hist. They did not call themselves Christians until later. Hoer. Omissions? regarding holy times, places, acts, and persons alike, and have been wanting in the Christian knowledge which knows how to secure to the O.T. i.26.2), who gave no explanation of the term. I. They tend to disrupt Christian boards with their views unless the staff put their foot down. Haer. Haeret. Other writers The Ebionites were one of several such sects that originated in and around Palestine in the first centuries ad and included the Nazarenes and Elkasites. EBIONITES: translation an early CHRISTIAN HERESY referred to by IRENAEUS whose BELIEFS are obscure. As predicted, Satan has ruled the hearts and minds of believers, and the church has become spiritually disenfranchised by manmade doctrines. The Ebionites testified that Paul had no Pharisaic background or training; he was the son of Gentiles, converted to Judaism in Tarsus, came to Jerusalem when an adult, and attached himself to the High Priest as a henchman. Thus they naturally repudiated Paul and his new doctrine entirely; for them Paul was a deceiver and … The name of the sect is from the Hebrew ebyonim, or ebionim (“the poor”); it was not founded, as later Christian writers stated, by a certain Ebion. and Theolog. 2000 years ago I lived as Jacob and was known as the brother of Yeshua. Circumcision and the observance of the whole ritual law of Moses are necessary to salvation for all men. They are thought to have been a poor JEWISH CHRISTIAN SECT which rejected PAULINE CHRISTIANITY and affirmed the Gospel of Matthew. They believed in one God and taught that Jesus was the Messiah and was the true “prophet” mentioned in Deuteronomy 18:15. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. According to the same writer, "the characteristic marks of Ebionism in all its forms are, degradation of Christianity to the level of Judaism, the principle of the universal and perpetual validity of the Mosaic law, and enmity to the apostle Paul. (Leipsig, 1820); Mosheim, Comnmentaries, 1:220, 400; Neander, Church Hist. The word Ebionites, or rather, more correctly, Ebionæans (Ebionaioi), is a transliteration of an Aramean word meaning "poor men". Bibliography InformationMcClintock, John. Dreieinigkeit Gottes; Dogmengeschichte, etc. By Mary Jane Chaignot. Hist. : 3:554 sq.). By this name were designated one or more early Christian sects infected with Judaistic errors. The early Ebionite literature is said to have resembled the Gospel According to Matthew, without the birth narrative. During the life of Jesus, Judaism was split into four main sects: Pharisees, Sadducees, Zealots and Essenes. 2. ). Pronunciation of Ebionites with 2 audio pronunciations, 5 translations, 2 sentences and more for Ebionites. Ebionites. He professes to discover in the New Testament the consecutive stages of a progress which, beginning with the Unitarian creed terminates in the doctrine of Christ's proper divinity. transl., page 203 sq.). The Ebionites were a Jewish sect that insisted on the necessity of following Jewish religious law and rites, [1] which they interpreted in light of Jesus' expounding of the Law. haer. "Baur agrees with the old Socinians in the statement that the Jewish Christianity of the apostolic age was Ebionite. (Adv. 1. Paulinism of the Early Church. Corrections? In many ways, Eisenman feels that the Ebionites were similar to the authors of the Dead Sea Scrolls. xxxiii. — The name is derived from the Hebrew אֶבְיוֹן, poor. 29:1). The people who qualify for the first time as Ebionites are one or several Christian sects in certain writings of Irenaeus, even though this church father did not supply a good designation of meaning for that word. The first use of the word "Christian" is found in Acts 11:26, where it states the disciples in Antioch were called Christians. Ebionism has reappeared, since the Reformation, in Socinianism (q.v. The Ebionite movement may have arisen about the time of the destruction of the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem (ad 70). How were the two different from orthodox (Pharisee) Judaism? According to Hegesippus (Hist. Entry for 'Ebionites'. The Ebionites knew nothing of the pre-existence or divinity of their revered prophet. translated 1:189 sq.) "From that zeal for the law with which Paul had to contend, the Judaizing spirit was led not at first to impeach the Christology, but rather the Soteriology, or the work of Christ. (d.) Christ is soon to come again to introduce the glorious millennial reign of the Messiah, with the earthly Jerusalem for its seat. Origen (c. Here he distinction between Nazarenes and the Ebionites proper becomes apparent. History, 1, § 69; Dorner, Person of Christ, Edinb. 2. The Ebionites were one of several such sects that originated in and around Palestine in the first centuries ad and included the Nazarenes and Elkasites. [2] They regarded Jesus as the Messiah but not as divine.The Ebionites revered his brother James as the head of the Jerusalem Church and rejected Paul of Tarsus because he was an apostate towards the Law [citation needed]. Literature. Haer., I, xxvi, 2… Christology of the Early Church. No one doubts that the first followers of Jesus were all Jews. Ebionites Eb https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/eng/tce/e/ebionites.html. Horsley, in this controversy, made use of Bull's learned treatment of the subject in his reply to Zwicker (see Bull, On the Trinity, Oxford, 1855, 3 vols. 1. The pseudo-Clementine homilies teach a speculative form of Ebionism, essentially Judaizing in spirit and aim [ (See CLEMENTINES), 2, page 383]; and compare Schaff, Ch. The second class of Ebionites, starting with Essenic notions, gave their Judaism a speculative or theosophic stamp, like the errorists of the Epistle to the Colossians. The Ebionites believed Jesus became the Messiah because he obeyed the Jewish Law. 1. (historical) A member of an early Jewish Christian sect that lived in and around Judea and Palestine from the 1st to the 4th century. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. They themselves faithfully followed the Law, although they removed what they regarded as interpolations in order to uphold their teachings, which included vegetarianism, holy poverty, ritual ablutions, and the rejection of animal sacrifices. The party which the Epistle to the Hebrews had in view must have over-estimated the law of the O.T. 2006. — Dr. Schaff sharply distinguishes Ebionism from Gnosticism as follows: "Ebionism is a Judaizing, pseudo-Petrine Christianity, or a Christianizing Judaism; Gnosticism is a paganizing or pseudo-Pauline Christianity, or a pseudo-Christian heathenism. Updates? Refutation of the Ebionites, who Disparaged the Authority of St. Paul, from the Writings of St. Luke, which must be Received as a Whole. Natural son of Joseph and Mary Ebionites believed Jesus became the Messiah because he obeyed the Jewish Christianity of Ebionites—although. His epistles are to be discarded link -- the original Latin texts.. Ebionites On Authority Apostles! 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